Europe's defence structure is taking shape. The EU in December 2017 launched a "permanent structured cooperation" on defence agreement (PESCO) across 25 countries to stimulate the development of military projects and the design of common defence equipment. As the United Kingdom and its powerful army prepare to leave the EU, new challenges to the security of the continent are emerging with the Islamist threat, growing tensions with Russia and pressure from migration. With this new common defence structure, will European countries redefine their relations with NATO? Will the EU live up to these new challenges?
NATO allies have pledged to spend 2 per cent of gross domestic product on defence, a goal that only eight of them are expected to reach this year.
1 month ago
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