The European Commission has said it is taking Germany, Britain, France and three other countries to the bloc's highest court for failing to comply with EU air quality standards.
The European Union is scrambling to save the Iran nuclear deal after US president Donald Trump pulled out of the 2015 agreement.
The number of asylum-seekers in the European Union whose applications were granted dropped by almost a quarter in 2017 to 538,000, official figures released has shown.
Germany recorded a bounce in the birth rate in 2016, official statistics show, hitting a 43-year high helped along by large numbers of recently-arrived migrants.
Proposals to connect several large EU immigration databases pose various risks for human rights, the bloc's Fundamental Rights Agency (FRA) warns.
Almost one million asylum applications were pending at the end of 2017, with Germany accounting for 48 per cent of the total figure.